Trade Control Department of the Security Export Control Policy Division under The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) oversees Japanese export control and compliance.
METI cooperates with a number of other government institutions including but not limited to:
- Japanese Customs
- Japanese National Police Agency (NPA)
- Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA)
- Japanese Coast Guard (JCG)
The build-up of the Japanese export control system includes a dual-use list consisting of 16 categories including arms control and a Munitions List. Further, Japan operates with a list of sanctioned countries, which seem to correspond to the countries embargoes by the UN.
The 16 dual-use list categories are:
Category 1: Wassenaar Arrangement Munitions List, Arms
Category 2: Nuclear Suppliers Group parts 1 and 2
Category 3: Australia Group, material for chemical and biological weapons
Category 4: Missile Technology Control Regime, equipment for missiles
Category 5: Wassenaar Arrangement Category 1
Category 6: Wassenaar Arrangement Category 2
Category 7: Wassenaar Arrangement Category 3
Category 8: Wassenaar Arrangement Category 4
Category 9: Wassenaar Arrangement Category 5
Category 10: Wassenaar Arrangement Category 6
Category 11: Wassenaar Arrangement Category 7
Category 12: Wassenaar Arrangement Category 8
Category 13: Wassenaar Arrangement Category 9
Category 14: Wassenaar Arrangement Munitions List except for Category 1 above
Category 15: Very Sensitive Items
Category 16: Catch-All items
Japan enforces Catch-All controls in a similar way as is done in Europe, i.e. a license is required if (“the Three Principles on Arms Export”):
- The items may contribute to the proliferation of WMD
- The exporter suspects or is aware that the end-user may use the items in relation to development of WMD.
- The exporter is informed by the Japanese government (METI) that a license is required.
The Japanese Center for Information on Security Trade Controls has published a booklet describing the Japanese approach to export control. A presentation providing an Overview of Japanese Export Control Legal Framework is also available.